These are the basic techniques which give shape to the kata and our practice. They broadly cover the following areas:

  • Stances and postures.
  • Blocking/deflecting techniques.
  • Leg attacks.
  • Hand attacks.
  • Throwing techniques.
  • Pressure point techniques.
  • Other techniques such as break falls, rolls, grappling etc.

They are practised alone, with a partner or within a group. They can be done empty handed, with a bo, jo, bokken or tanto.